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What Does The IRS Do?

What Does The IRS Do

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) plays a crucial role in the United States tax system, serving as the primary agency responsible for collecting taxes and enforcing tax laws. With its broad range of responsibilities, the IRS ensures that individuals and businesses meet their tax obligations while promoting fairness and integrity in the tax system.

Understanding the functions and significance of the IRS is essential for taxpayers and citizens alike. This article explores the various roles and responsibilities of the IRS, highlighting its importance in maintaining an efficient and equitable tax system.

What Does The IRS Do?

The IRS, or Internal Revenue Service, is the federal agency responsible for the administration and enforcement of tax laws in the United States. Its primary function is to collect taxes from individuals, businesses, and other entities to fund government operations and programs. The IRS carries out its duties through a wide range of activities, including tax collection, administration, taxpayer assistance and education, as well as tax policy and enforcement.

One of the key roles of the IRS is tax collection. It ensures that taxpayers fulfill their obligations by collecting taxes on income, investments, and various transactions. The agency receives tax returns from individuals and businesses, processes them, and calculates the amount of tax owed. It also oversees the payment of taxes through various methods, such as payroll withholding, estimated tax payments, and electronic filing systems.

In addition to tax collection, the IRS is responsible for administering tax laws and regulations. It develops and interprets tax regulations, ensuring that taxpayers comply with the tax code. The agency conducts audits and investigations to verify the accuracy of tax returns and detect potential instances of non-compliance. Through these efforts, the IRS aims to maintain the integrity of the tax system and ensure that taxpayers are treated fairly.

The IRS also provides assistance and education to taxpayers. It offers resources, tools, and guidance to help individuals and businesses understand their tax obligations and navigate the complexities of the tax code. The agency assists taxpayers in resolving issues, answering questions, and addressing concerns related to their taxes. By promoting taxpayer education, the IRS aims to improve compliance and reduce errors in tax reporting.

Furthermore, the IRS plays a role in shaping tax policy and enforcing tax laws. It participates in the development of tax policies, providing insights and expertise to policymakers. The agency conducts research and analysis to support tax policy decisions, ensuring that the tax system remains efficient, equitable, and responsive to changing economic conditions. Moreover, the IRS investigates cases of tax fraud, evasion, and money laundering, taking legal actions when necessary to enforce compliance and deter illegal activities.

In conclusion, the IRS is a critical institution within the United States tax system. It collects taxes, administers tax laws, provides assistance and education to taxpayers, and contributes to the development and enforcement of tax policy. Through its diverse functions, the IRS ensures the proper functioning of the tax system, promoting fairness, compliance, and funding essential government operations and programs.

Tax Collection and Administration

Collecting taxes from individuals and businesses:

One of the primary responsibilities of the IRS is to collect taxes from individuals and businesses. The IRS employs various methods to collect taxes, ensuring that taxpayers fulfill their obligations. For individuals, the IRS collects income taxes, which are based on the income earned from various sources such as wages, investments, and self-employment. Employers play a significant role in tax collection as they are responsible for withholding income taxes from employees’ wages and remitting them to the IRS on their behalf. Additionally, individuals are required to report their income and calculate their tax liability by filing annual tax returns.

Similarly, the IRS collects taxes from businesses, including corporations, partnerships, and self-employed individuals. Businesses are responsible for paying income taxes on their profits. The IRS monitors compliance by ensuring that businesses accurately report their income and expenses through corporate tax returns, partnership returns, or self-employment tax returns.

To facilitate tax collection, the IRS provides various payment options to taxpayers. These include electronic methods such as direct debit, credit card payments, and electronic funds withdrawal. Taxpayers can also choose to make estimated tax payments throughout the year to avoid underpayment penalties.

Enforcing tax laws and regulations:

Enforcing tax laws and regulations is a critical aspect of the IRS’s role in tax administration. The IRS has the authority to ensure that taxpayers comply with tax laws and regulations, promoting fairness and equity in the tax system. The agency employs a range of strategies to enforce tax compliance.

One of the methods used by the IRS is conducting audits. Audits involve a thorough examination of a taxpayer’s financial records and tax returns to verify the accuracy and completeness of the reported information. Audits can be conducted randomly, based on computerized selection criteria, or in response to specific issues or discrepancies identified by the IRS. During an audit, the IRS may request supporting documents, conduct interviews, and make adjustments to the taxpayer’s tax liability if necessary.

In addition to audits, the IRS also conducts investigations to identify instances of tax fraud, evasion, or other illegal activities. The agency collaborates with other law enforcement agencies to gather evidence and pursue legal actions against individuals or businesses engaged in fraudulent tax practices. These investigations aim to deter tax evasion and maintain the integrity of the tax system.

Processing tax returns and issuing refunds:

Another significant aspect of tax administration is the processing of tax returns and the issuance of refunds. The IRS receives millions of tax returns each year, both electronically and through paper filings. The agency is responsible for accurately processing these returns and determining the amount of tax owed or the refund due to the taxpayer.

The IRS employs advanced technology systems to process tax returns efficiently. It checks the accuracy of the reported information and verifies the taxpayer’s eligibility for deductions, credits, and exemptions. If any errors or discrepancies are identified, the IRS may correspond with the taxpayer to request additional information or clarification.

Once a tax return is processed, the IRS issues refunds to eligible taxpayers. Refunds can be deposited directly into the taxpayer’s bank account through direct deposit or sent as a paper check. The IRS strives to issue refunds promptly, but the timeframe may vary depending on the complexity of the return, any errors or discrepancies, or any outstanding tax liabilities owed by the taxpayer.

Conducting audits and investigations to ensure compliance:

To ensure compliance with tax laws and regulations, the IRS conducts audits and investigations. Audits are conducted to verify the accuracy of the information provided in tax returns and to ensure compliance with tax laws. They can be conducted for individuals, businesses, or specific types of transactions or deductions.

During an audit, the IRS may request supporting documentation, such as receipts, invoices, or financial statements, to substantiate the taxpayer’s claims. The agency may also conduct interviews with the taxpayer or their representatives to gather additional information. If discrepancies or errors are identified, the IRS may adjust the taxpayer’s tax liability accordingly.

In addition to audits, the IRS conducts investigations to detect and address instances of tax fraud, evasion, and other illegal activities. The agency collaborates with other government agencies, such as the Department of Justice and the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), to gather information, analyze data, and pursue legal actions against individuals or businesses engaged in fraudulent tax practices.

Through audits and investigations, the IRS aims to maintain tax compliance, deter fraudulent activities, and ensure that taxpayers meet their obligations under the tax laws. By conducting these enforcement activities, the IRS helps to maintain the fairness and integrity of the tax system.

Taxpayer Assistance and Education

Providing resources and tools for taxpayers:

The IRS recognizes the importance of providing resources and tools to taxpayers to help them understand their tax obligations and navigate the tax system effectively. The agency offers a wide range of resources, both online and offline, to assist taxpayers in fulfilling their tax responsibilities.

The IRS serves as a central hub for taxpayer resources. It provides access to forms, publications, and instructions necessary for filing tax returns. The website also offers online tools and calculators to help taxpayers estimate their tax liability, determine eligibility for credits and deductions, and track the status of their refunds.

In addition to the website, the IRS operates toll-free telephone helplines where taxpayers can seek assistance. These helplines are staffed by knowledgeable representatives who can provide guidance and answer questions related to tax laws, forms, and filing requirements.

Offering guidance on tax laws and obligations:

Navigating the complex landscape of tax laws and obligations can be challenging for taxpayers. To address this, the IRS offers guidance on various tax-related topics to help taxpayers understand their rights and responsibilities.

The IRS publishes tax publications and guides that provide detailed explanations of tax laws and regulations. These publications cover a wide range of topics, including individual and business tax obligations, specific deductions and credits, retirement plans, and international tax issues.

Additionally, the IRS issues revenue rulings, revenue procedures, and other official guidance documents that interpret tax laws and provide specific instructions for compliance. These guidance documents serve as authoritative references for taxpayers and tax professionals when determining their tax obligations.

Assisting taxpayers in resolving issues and disputes:

The IRS acknowledges that taxpayers may encounter issues or disputes regarding their taxes. To address these concerns, the agency provides assistance and channels for dispute resolution.

Taxpayers can contact the IRS directly to resolve issues related to their tax accounts, such as incorrect tax assessments, notices, or discrepancies in their records. The agency has a dedicated customer service department that handles these inquiries and works towards resolving taxpayer concerns.

In situations where a taxpayer disagrees with an IRS decision, such as the results of an audit or a proposed adjustment to their tax liability, the IRS offers an appeals process. Taxpayers can request an appeal and present their case to an independent appeals officer who reviews the facts and considers both the taxpayer’s and the IRS’s positions. This process provides a fair and impartial means for resolving disputes without going to court.

Promoting tax compliance through educational initiatives:

The IRS recognizes the value of educating taxpayers and promoting tax compliance through proactive initiatives. The agency invests in educational programs and outreach efforts to increase taxpayer awareness and understanding of their tax obligations.

The IRS conducts workshops, seminars, and webinars to educate taxpayers on various tax topics, including record-keeping, tax deductions, and credits. These educational sessions are designed to provide practical information and guidance to help taxpayers meet their tax responsibilities accurately.

Moreover, the IRS collaborates with other organizations, such as community groups, schools, and professional associations, to reach a broader audience and provide tax education at local levels.


In conclusion, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) plays a vital role in the United States tax system by carrying out a range of crucial functions. From tax collection and administration to taxpayer assistance, education, and policy enforcement, the IRS ensures the integrity and fairness of the tax system. By collecting taxes, administering tax laws, providing guidance to taxpayers, and participating in the development of tax policies, the IRS maintains the financial foundation of the government while striving to foster compliance and minimize tax fraud.

Its efforts contribute to a functioning tax system that supports the nation’s economic stability and growth. As taxpayers, understanding the responsibilities and functions of the IRS empowers individuals and businesses to fulfill their tax obligations and engage with the tax system effectively.